Introduction to Physiotherapy Services 物理治療服務簡介
What is Physiotherapy? 物理治療是什麼?
Physiotherapy (abbreviated to PT) is defined by the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) as “providing services to individuals and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan”.

In order to achieve therapeutic outcome, PT is using the beneficial effect of human physiological response to physical stimulation. For instance, the physical modalities which will be commonly used including electricity, water, cryotherapy, heat, light, magnetism, exercise, manual technique and … etc.

With the skillful practice of scientific evidence and integrate this with the art of empathy, PT will apply the principle of physical, psychological, pathological and anatomical sciences, in order to achieve a common goal of safe and effective clinical outcome on the patients.

In summary, PT will enhance patient’s physical activity and functional movement recovery, improve the muscle strength, prevent disease and improve quality of life.
物理治療是建基於醫學的非藥物治療方法之一,它是利用人體生理對物理刺激所作出的反應來達到治療目的。物理治療是透過物理媒介和原理,例如利用電能、水力、冷凍、熱能、光波、磁力,運動等,配合應用生理、心理、病理和解剖科學,從而達到治療病患、恢復身體活動功能,提昇身體活動能耐,改善及加強日常生活或工作能力,預防疾病,提高生活質素。  
Clienteles: 服務對象:
PT in Hong Kong is characterized by the harmonious integration of modern Chinese medicine and advanced Western medical approach.

The service domain is extensively covered rehabilitation, health education, disease prevention, health and scientific research and other health related issues.

Clienteles included patients of all ages, various diseases ( such as orthopedics, brain , heart, lung , surgery , internal medicine, pediatrics , geriatrics , gynecology , oncology and psychiatry and … etc. ), non-government-organization, public and private service  sectors.
香港物理治療發展薈萃中西,工作涵蓋臨床醫療、復康、教育、預防疾病創傷、保健及科研等範疇。服務對象包括各年齡人仕、市民大眾及各類疾病(例如骨科、腦科、心肺科、外科、內科、兒科、老人科、婦產科、腫瘤科及精神科等) 的患者。  

Examples of Physiotherapy Services

物理治療的服務類別例子:

Example 1: Care of Repetitive stress injury of spine and pain management  例一:脊椎勞損及痛症物理治療
For neck pain and low back pain, PT will be helpful in pain easing, protective care and relapse prevention.
The following modalities may be useful: traction therapy, manual therapy, electrotherapy, heat and cryotherapy, exercise therapy, acupuncture, stretching and muscle strengthening exercise.
針對腰、頸以及脊椎問題的病患者,提供鎮痛處理、脊椎護理和預防復發等治療,使病人減輕疼痛和回復日常活動。治療方法有牽引治療、手力治療、電療、訓練、針炙、伸展及強化肌肉運動等。  
Example 2: Care of sports injury 例二:運動創傷物理治療
Sports physiotherapy is targeted to serve elite or amateur athletes. The general objectives of the service are to improve performance, facilitate earlier recovery, timely return to the game and prevent re-injury. 專為因運動受傷的運動員或業餘愛好者而提供的運動創傷治療及專效運動鍛鍊,使傷患者能恢復或提高運動水平,預防再度創傷。  
Example 3: Neurological rehabilitation 例三:腦神經系統復康物理治療
The approach of physiotherapy in neurological rehabilitation is comprehensive and holistic.
The diseases management included stroke, Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy and other patients.
The therapy may extend from restore physical activity to prevent from complications and home environmental assessment. By using the adaptive or compensatory method, the aim of the service is to help patients overcoming obstacles, ensuring patient could live independently as much as they should be and reducing the burden of the care-giver.
為腦神經系統疾病,如中風、柏金遜症、腦癱等病人,提供全面的康復治療,包括肢體活動及功能鍛鍊、預防併發症、家居環境評估和安排,幫助病人克服活動和生活上的障礙,務求盡量恢復病人的獨立活動及生活能力。  

Example 4: Care of heart and lung diseases
例四:心肺系統復康物理治療
The diseases management for heart and lung included chronic obstructive lung disease, pneumonia, lung cancer and various heart diseases.

The cardio-pulmonary (related to heat and lung) therapy may introduce to patient in order to prevent and treat complication after surgical procedure. It also enhance the function of heart and lung, as a result the patient could have earlier recovery and return to life of better quality.
為患心肺系統疾病和手術前後的病人提供物理治療(如指導舒緩呼吸方法及提供心肺功能鍛鍊),減低併發症和増強心肺功能,提高病人的於痊癒進展及生活質素。  
Example 5: Care of upper limbs and hand injury 例五:上肢及手部功能復康
The medical problem included congenital and traumatic upper limbs or hand diseases. A tailor made therapy may base on the age and the occupation of the patient. 對先天或創傷性手部疾病患者提供的臨床及電腦儀器檢查,繼而進行整套切合病者特質(如年齡或工作需要)的治療。  
Example 6: Care of Burn Injury 例六:燒傷復康
The beauty of physiotherapy to burn injury patient is to promote wound healing and enhance the flexibility of scar. Electrotherapy such as ultrasound and micro-current may be useful.
Exercise therapy and manual technique may be useful too in order to prevent joint stiffness and muscle tightness. The ultimate goal is to improve the mobility and promote earlier return to community.

促進傷口癒合和疤痕的處理(如使用超聲波電療舒鬆疤痕)、協助和教導燒傷病人合適的關節活動及筋腱伸展運動,防止關節僵硬和肌肉攣縮,提高病人的活動能力和加快病人重投社會。
Example 7: Care of women’s health 例七: 婦產科物理治療:
The therapy may provide to pregnant women in the occasion of prenatal and postnatal exercise classes.
Right before and after production or during hospitalization, PT will provide appropriate services , such as treatment of wrist pain, lower back, pelvis girdle pain, urinary or bowel incontinence .
There is a rehabilitation program specially designed for women with breast cancer. The rehabilitation program may reduce complications such as lymphoedema, shoulder stiffness and promote healing after breast surgery.
為孕婦提供更臻完善的產前及產後運動班,及在婦女生產前後或住院期間提供合適的服務,如治療腕部疼痛、腰背及盆骨綜合痛症、失禁等。又指導乳癌切割手術後的婦女進行適當的運動,減低併發症,促進手術後的痊癒  
Example 8: Care of Newborns, Children and Adolescent 例八:兒科物理治療:
The target clienteles is newborns, children and adolescents.
The focus is on client’s health, physical, mental development and growth issues. For instance, the service may include cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, weight management, promote physical conditioning and enhance developmental milestone.
對象為初生嬰兒、兒童及青少年,針對影響他們健康、成長和身心發展的問題,提供如心肺復康、減肥、促進體能發展的運動。  
Example 9: Care of elderly 例九:老人科綜合物理治療
PT provides comprehensive care of the physical, psychological and cardio-vascular conditioning for elderly.
For instance, the service may include fall prevention, risk assessment, pain management, physical re-conditioning, enhance self-care and maintenance of good quality of life.
為長者提供包括心、智、體能檢查、運動班、鎮痛、改善平衡鍛鍊、摔跌風險評估及預防、專題健康講座等,促進長者全人健康、生活自理功能及生活質素。  

Commonly used methods and modalities:

物理治療方法:

Exercise therapy: 運動療法:
Exercise is medicine. Such therapy is based on the scientific advancement in biomechanics, kinetic and kinematic and pathophysiology clinical evidence study.
The ultimate goal is to improve cardio-pulmonary conditioning, range of motion and muscle strength.
For example, cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation program
以人體結構、力學、生理學和病理學為基本的治療方法,以達到增強心肺功能、舒展筋肌、活動關節等目的﹔近代醫療科研己肯定運動療法在臨床上的應用療效。
例如:心臟康復運動班。
 
Electrotherapy: 電療法:
Electrotherapy is based on the application of high, medium and low frequency electrical current and also wide spectrum of light wave to achieve therapeutic effect.
The clinical outcome may be anti-inflammation, pain modulation, improve circulation, reduce swelling, increase muscle strength and … etc.
The electrotherapy machine and operation procedure which used by physiotherapist in Hong Kong is following the stringent safety standard as governed by international and Hong Kong law.
For example, Inter-ferrential electrotherapy
電療包括利用高、中、低頻率電流及以電流啟動的治療電波:如激光、衝激波、紫外光、紅外線、脈衝電磁波、短波、微電流、超聲波和干擾波等﹔達到不同的治療目的如止痛、消腫、強壯肌力和加強功能等作用。
物理治療所採用的電療儀器及操作程序,皆完全符合嚴格的國際及香港標準。
例如:干擾波電療。
 
Hydrotherapy: 水療:
Hydrotherapy is applying the unique property of water which included buoyancy, resistance and temperature to attain the treatment effect such as improving joint range of motion, circulation, easing muscle spasm and modulate pain.
Moreover the buoyancy, resistance could also strengthen the muscle power and facilitate balance training.
For example, use of buoyancy in swimming pool to facilitate lower back exercise
水療的等特色是在於利用水的特性如水溫、浮力和阻力等提供治療。病人在溫水中較易舒展肢體關節,增加血液循環和舒緩痛楚及緊張的肌肉,加上水的浮力和阻力可增強肌力和平衡訓練。
例如:借肋浮力的腰部運動。
 
Manual therapy 手力治療:
Manual therapy in Hong Kong is characterized by the integration of modern Chinese and advanced Western scientific approach. The following therapeutic outcome may exhibit: joint mobilization, muscle and ligament lengthening, correction of spine alignment and enhance functional movement restoration.
For example, manual therapy to lower back pain
揉合中、西方手力治療的專業治療方法,主要療效為鎮痛、舒整關節及筋腱,以促進功能的恢復。 例如:腰部關節舒整治療
平衝和步態評估及鍛鍊:
物理治療師以臨床及先進的電腦化儀器作平衡及步態的評估,繼而設計合適個人需要的訓練程序、有關的家居安排和步行器的使用。
例如:站立平衡檢查。
 
Motion and gait analysis training 平衝和步態評估及鍛鍊:
The pattern of how a person walks is called the gait. Different types of walking problems occur without a person's control. Most, but not all, are due to a physical condition. PT may use observational or instrumental motion analysis method to identify the problem and design a training program accordingly. Instrumental motion analysis is aided with high speed camera, electromyogram and force platform to collect the data which related to the motion and gait cycle. The data will then processed by computer to produce a report for easier decision making. 物理治療師以臨床及先進的電腦化儀器作平衡及步態的評估,繼而設計合適個人需要的訓練程序、有關的家居安排和步行器的使用。
例如:站立平衡檢查
 
Physical reconditioning and functional capacity evaluation 體適能評估及訓練:
Physical reconditioning and functional capacity evaluation are used to identify the physical condition deficit, design the training program and evaluate the ability of the patient in order to facilitate returning to work.
In the case of lower back pain patient who may clinically presented with back muscle wasting and deranged physical condition after prolong bed rest. PT may use resistive exercise and aerobic exercise to improve muscle strength and cardio-pulmonary function correspondingly.
For example, physical reconditioning and functional capacity evaluation for lower back pain patient.
體適能治療包括為病者提供有關的檢查、測試及訓練。普遍治療如腰背體適能鍛鍊班,主要針對因為腰背痛而引致腰背肌肉衰退及體適能下調的病人,透過運用不同的器械,加強肌肉及心肺功能,以達致減輕腰背的症狀。
例如:腰背體適能鍛鍊。
 
Acupuncture 針灸治療:
HKPA is a designated organization to provide accreditation by Hong Kong Law for physiotherapist acupuncture practitioner. PT in Hong Kong is using modern acupuncture practice which is emphasized on scientific evidence-based support. Acupuncture is commonly used for pain management, improve muscle strength and enhance soft-tissue healing.
For example, acupuncture for tennis elbow
由香港物理治療師學會專業鑒定認可物理治療師提供的現代針灸治療。主要臨床應用是為病人止痛、刺激肌力及恢復功能。
例如:現代電針療法。
 
Physiotherapy in community and primary health care  家居/ 社區健康 物理治療:
Patient empowerment is one of the themes in community and primary health care physiotherapy. The goal of physiotherapy health education is to promote healthy life style and manage risk in certain decease group such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes through physical conditioning and resistive exercise.
Fall prevention program is also an example in the care of elderly.
對於行動不便以致不能在門診部接受治療的病人,物理治療可提供家居治療和到訪的居室評估,使病人能在家中進行合適的活動,讓病人儘早融入社區。
例如:家居評估及治及 社區活動能力訓練。
 
Assorted Physiotherapy Service: 其他服務:
Apart from the previously mentioned PT services, physiotherapy may also include traditional thermal therapy, use of advanced assistive technology, biofeedback and ergonomic, robotic therapy, diagnostic ultrasound scanning and virtual reality technology.
Physiotherapist may also provide clinical education and intelligent transfer to other health care providers such as nurse and health care assistant.
For the general public, PT may deliver consultation service, seminar and workshop according to the specific topics such as stretching exercise and prevention of musculo-skeletal pain for office worker.
除上述所列較為普遍的服務外,物理治療亦包括傳統的冷熱療法,使用高科技的治療法如生物回饋治療、電腦化均速運動法和以先進知識為基礎的人體功率學。物理治療師亦會為醫療同業提供教學服務、為市民大眾提供專業的顧問諮詢、專題講座及工作坊等服務。  
Physiotherapy for neonate, children and adolescent 兒童物理治療:
With respect to heart and lung diseases (e.g. pneumonia and asthma), chest physiotherapy may be indicated.
Physiotherapy for the children with neurological and developmental problems such as cerebral palsy, Down’s syndrome and developmental delay are aimed at chasing developmental mile-stone and promote physical fitness.
為初生嬰兒、兒童及青少年提供心肺復康治療(例如肺炎、哮喘等)。為過胖之兒童提供減肥運動。更為體能發展遲緩、瞄癱、唐氏綜合症之兒童提供治療,協助兒童健康成長和體能發展。
例如:兒童健體班的水療運動、 初生嬰兒胸肺治療及 兒童步態訓練。
 
Physiotherapy for senior citizen 老人科綜合治療:
Aging population is a common phenomenon all over the world. Physiotherapy care for elderly is using holistic approach which included training of physical fitness, mental health, and balance and fall prevention. The goal is to maintain meaningful, respectful and enjoyable life despite of inevitable aging process. 為年老人仕提供全人健康的治療,包括身心、體力、平衡和預防摔趺等鍛鍊,達致老有所為的目標。 例如:老人肢體鍛鍊。  
Physiotherapy for osteoporosis 骨質疏鬆綜合治療:
Deceleration of calcium drain from bone and symptomatic relief are the objectives of physiotherapy management for osteoporosis.
The intervention included pain management, good postural control, exercise therapy and vibration therapy. The patient empowerment activities such as health care seminar and exercise class are the platforms to promote self-care and symptom management skills.
治療包括疼痛、姿勢和體能檢查、專題健康講座、運動班和症狀的自我照顧及處理訓練等。
例如:軀體姿勢改善伸展運動及 專題講座。
 
Physiotherapy provided at home 家居物理治療:
Domiciliary or community physiotherapy service means physiotherapy take place at patient’s home. It may be more accessible for the one who is not feasible to transport to ambulatory care facilities such as out-patient clinic.
The characteristics of such service are that the intervention may be tailor-made to the resident’s needs and based on environmental limiting factors. The beauty of such care model is allowing earlier integration of patients to their community.
對於行動不便以致不能在門診部接受治療的病人,物理治療可提供家居治療和到訪的居室評估,使病人能在家中進行合適的活動,讓病人儘早融入社區。
例如:家居評估及治及 社區活動能力訓練。